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Iodine Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

I

Atomic Number

53

Atomic Weight

Rounded

126.9

for regular calculations

Standard

126.90447 ± 0.00003

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 7

less common with disagreement

 5

more common with disagreement

 3

less common with disagreement

 1

less common with disagreement

 0

less common

-1

more common

Pauling Electronegativity

2.66

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p5

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

2P3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

10.45126 eV

II  (2)

19.1313 eV 

III (3)

33 eV      

Electron Affinity

3.059038 ± 0.000010 eV

24672.81 ± 0.08 cm-1  

Density

liquid, 386.75 K

3.976 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

4.933 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

25.72 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 bar

386.75 ± 0.03 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

457.56 K

Thermal Conductivity

gas

700 K, 1 atm

0.0076 W/(m K)

600 K, 1 atm

0.0065 W/(m K)

500 K, 1 atm

0.0055 W/(m K)

solid

350 K, polycrystalline

0.401 W/(m K) 

extrapolated or estimated

300 K, polycrystalline

0.449 W/(m K) 

273.2 K, polycrystalline

0.481 W/(m K) 

extrapolated or estimated

250 K, polycrystalline

0.512 W/(m K) 

extrapolated or estimated

see all 53 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

133 pm

double bond

129 pm

triple bond

125 pm

Atomic Radius

133 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

15.27 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

41.67 kJ/mol

Quantity

Iodine Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

10.45126 eV

II  (2)

19.1313 eV 

III (3)

33 eV      

Electron Affinity

3.059038 ± 0.000010 eV

24672.81 ± 0.08 cm-1  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

33169 eV  

LI   (2s)

 5188 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 4852 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 4557 eV  

see all 14 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p5

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

2P3/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

51.9391

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

51.9391

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

19.5335

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

39.0670

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 11 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

79.0%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.882

ωL1

0.044

ωL2

0.079

ωL3

0.079

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.18 

F13

0.25 

F23

0.156

Quantity

Iodine Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 386.75 K

3.976 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

4.933 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

126.9 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

126.90447 ± 0.00003 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

25.72 cm3/mol

Physical Form

blue-black plates

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

4.93

Dielectric Constant

11 component of dielectric tensor, room temperature, 5×104 Hz to 5×107 Hz

 6   

22 component of dielectric tensor, room temperature, 5×104 Hz to 5×107 Hz

 3   

33 component of dielectric tensor, room temperature, 5×104 Hz to 5×107 Hz

40   

391.25 K

11.08

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 293 K

1.37×107 Ohm m

Photoelectric Work Function

6.8 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

25 GPa

1.2 K

maximum temperature

Gram Atomic Volume

26 cm3

Quantity

Iodine Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 7

less common with disagreement

 5

more common with disagreement

 3

less common with disagreement

 1

less common with disagreement

 0

less common

-1

more common

Pauling Electronegativity

2.66

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

hybridsp3

2.95

hybrid14.3% s

2.74

orbitalp

2.45

Sanderson Electronegativity

2.778

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

2.21

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

13.95 eV

Pauling units

 2.359  

Allen Electronegativity

2.359

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

2.66

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

5.5916 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

2.27

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

6.76 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 1

2.5

oxidation state: -1

2.65

Chemical Hardness

3.69 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

107 kJ/mol    

per atom

  1.11 eV/atom

Quantity

Iodine Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 bar

386.75 ± 0.03 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

457.56 K

Thermal Conductivity

gas

700 K, 1 atm

0.0076 W/(m K)

600 K, 1 atm

0.0065 W/(m K)

500 K, 1 atm

0.0055 W/(m K)

solid

350 K, polycrystalline

0.401 W/(m K) 

extrapolated or estimated

300 K, polycrystalline

0.449 W/(m K) 

273.2 K, polycrystalline

0.481 W/(m K) 

extrapolated or estimated

250 K, polycrystalline

0.512 W/(m K) 

extrapolated or estimated

see all 53 conductivities ...

Critical Point

819 K

Vapor Pressure

184.0 °C

100 kPa

108 °C

10 kPa

68.7 °C

1 kPa

see all 16 pressures ...

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

15.27 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

41.67 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

54.438 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.214 J/(g K)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

109 K

Quantity

Iodine Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7553-56-2

ICSC Number

0167

RTECS Number

NN1575000

Quantity

Iodine Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

133 pm

Orbital Radius

104.4 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

133 pm

double bond

129 pm

triple bond

125 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

139 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: -1, coordination number: 6

206 pm

ion charge: +5

coordination number: 3, pyramidal

 58 pm

coordination number: 6

109 pm

ion charge: +7

coordination number: 4

 56 pm

coordination number: 6

 67 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: -1, coordination number: 6

220 pm

ion charge: +5

coordination number: 3, pyramidal

 44 pm

coordination number: 6

 95 pm

ion charge: +7

coordination number: 4

 42 pm

coordination number: 6

 53 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: -1

216 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

 77 pm

ion charge: -1

216 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.1×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

222 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

198 pm

Pauling Van Der Waals Radius

215 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

140 pm

Quantity

Iodine Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

354 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

2.36×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Iodine History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1811

discoverer

Bernard Courtois

birth

February 8, 1777

death

September 27, 1838

location of discovery

Paris, France

Origin of Element Name

origin

ioeides

origin description

color—Greek for violet colored

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: I

origin

iodine

origin description

element name

Quantity

Iodine Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

4.5×10-1 ppm

Earth's Mantle

7 ppb

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

0.13 ppm

Bulk Earth

0.05 ppm

Ocean Water

0.06 ppm

River Water

≈0.005 ppm

U.S. Coal

<1.0 ppm

estimated from USGS and literature data

Human Body

12 mg to 20 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

21 ppm

Human Hair

0.1 ppm to 15 ppm

Human Kidney

0.15 ppm

Human Liver

0.7 ppm

Human Muscle

0.05 ppm to 0.5 ppm

Ferns

5.4 ppm

Fungi

3.1 ppm to 6.7 ppm

Solar System

0.90

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Meteorites

1.50 ± 0.08

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Iodine Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

iode

German

Iod

Italian

iodio

Spanish

yodo

Portuguese

iodo

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

iodide (general)

I-, iodide(1-)

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

iodine (general)

I+, iodine(1+)

Ligands

I-, iodido(1-)

Heteroatomic Anion

iodate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

ioda

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

iody

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