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Nickel Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Ni

Atomic Number

28

Atomic Weight

Rounded

58.69

for regular calculations

Standard

58.6934 ± 0.0004

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 6

less common

 4

less common

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

more common

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.91

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d8 4s2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d8

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

3F4

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.6398 eV     

II  (2)

18.16884 eV    

III (3)

35.19 ± 0.02 eV

IV  (4)

54.9 ± 0.2 eV  

see all 28 energies ...

Electron Affinity

1.15716 ± 0.00012 eV

 9333.1 ± 1.0 cm-1  

Density

liquid, 2000 K

7.518 g/ml 

solid

1500 K

8.362 g/cm3

1000 K

8.631 g/cm3

400 K

8.870 g/cm3

300 K

8.901 g/cm3

200 K

8.928 g/cm3

100 K

8.953 g/cm3

see all 27 densities ...

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

6.59 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

1728 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

3186.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

 80.2 W/(m K)

300 K

 90.7 W/(m K)

298.2 K

 90.9 W/(m K)

273.2 K

 94.1 W/(m K)

200 K

107 W/(m K)  

see all 42 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

110 pm

double bond

101 pm

triple bond

101 pm

Atomic Radius

125 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

17.6 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

371.8 kJ/mol

Quantity

Nickel Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.6398 eV     

II  (2)

18.16884 eV    

III (3)

35.19 ± 0.02 eV

IV  (4)

54.9 ± 0.2 eV  

see all 28 energies ...

Electron Affinity

1.15716 ± 0.00012 eV

 9333.1 ± 1.0 cm-1  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

8333 eV  

LI   (2s)

1008.6 eV

LII  (2p1/2)

 870.0 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

 852.7 eV

see all 7 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d8 4s2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d8

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

3F4

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

27.3526

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

27.3526

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

10.1063

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

20.2126

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 7 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

75.5%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.421 

ωL1

0.0014

ωL2

0.0086

ωL3

0.0093

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.30 

F13

0.55 

F23

0.028

Quantity

Nickel Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 2000 K

7.518 g/ml 

solid

1500 K

8.362 g/cm3

1000 K

8.631 g/cm3

400 K

8.870 g/cm3

300 K

8.901 g/cm3

200 K

8.928 g/cm3

100 K

8.953 g/cm3

see all 27 densities ...

Molar Mass

Rounded

58.69 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

58.6934 ± 0.0004 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

6.59 cm3/mol

Physical Form

white metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

13.4×10-6 K-1

293 K

12.8×10-6 K-1

280 K

12.4×10-6 K-1

273 K

12.3×10-6 K-1

260 K

12.2×10-6 K-1

see all 21 coefficients ...

Speed of Sound

solid

room temperature, longitudinal wave

6040 m/s

room temperature, shear wave

3000 m/s

room temperature, extensional wave

4900 m/s

20 °C

longitudinal wave

5700 m/s

shear wave

3000 m/s

291 K

4970 m/s

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

8.90

Young's Modulus

199.5 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.312

Electrical Resistivity

solid

200 K

3.67×10-8 Ohm m

273 K

6.16×10-8 Ohm m

293 K

6.93×10-8 Ohm m

300 K

7.20×10-8 Ohm m

400 K

11.78×10-8 Ohm m

see all 35 resistivities ...

Contact Potential

4.96 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

5.01 eV

Thermionic Work Function

5.03 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

4.0

Vickers Hardness

smelted in vacuum

293 K

638 MN/m2

533 K

598 MN/m2

see all 7 hardnesses ...

Reflectivity

surface polished electrolytically

0.450 μm

59.4%

0.550 μm

62.6%

0.650 μm

66.6%

see all 19 reflectivities ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

186 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.00538 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

6 cm3

Quantity

Nickel Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 6

less common

 4

less common

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

more common

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.91

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 5

3.81

oxidation state: 4

3.27

oxidation state: 3

2.73

oxidation state: 2

1.94

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.75

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

11.13 eV

Pauling units

 1.88   

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.91

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

3.8584 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.47

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

4.40 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.85

Chemical Hardness

3.25 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

428 kJ/mol    

per atom

  4.44 eV/atom

Quantity

Nickel Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

1728 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point (freezing point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

3186.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K

 80.2 W/(m K)

300 K

 90.7 W/(m K)

298.2 K

 90.9 W/(m K)

273.2 K

 94.1 W/(m K)

200 K

107 W/(m K)  

see all 42 conductivities ...

Critical Point

temperature

6000 K

predicted for the vapor and the insulating liquid region

pressure

0.29 GPa

Vapor Pressure

2911 °C

100 kPa

2468 °C

10 kPa

2137 °C

1 kPa

1881 °C

100 Pa

1677 °C

10 Pa

1510 °C

1 Pa

Curie Point

630 K

nanocrystalline

545 K

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

17.6 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

371.8 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

26.07 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.444 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

7.04 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

477 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

345 K

Quantity

Nickel Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-02-0

ICSC Number

0062

RTECS Number

QR5950000

Quantity

Nickel Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

125 pm

Orbital Radius

113.9 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

110 pm

double bond

101 pm

triple bond

101 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

124 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4

69 pm  

square planer

63 pm  

coordination number: 5

77 pm  

coordination number: 6

83.0 pm

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

low spin

70 pm  

high spin

74 pm  

ion charge: +4, coordination number: 6, low spin

62 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4

55 pm  

square planer

49 pm  

coordination number: 5

63 pm  

coordination number: 6

69.0 pm

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

low spin

56 pm  

high spin

60 pm  

ion charge: +4, coordination number: 6, low spin

48 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

62 pm

ion charge: +2

72 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.0×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

223 pm

Bondi Van Der Waals Radius

163 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

135 pm

Quantity

Nickel Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

249 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

9.14×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Nickel History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1751

discoverer

Axel Fredrik Cronstedt

birth

December 23, 1722

death

August 19, 1765

location of discovery

Stockholm, Sweden

Origin of Element Name

origin

kupfernickel

origin description

mineral—German for St. Nicholas's Copper or the Devil's Copper

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Ni

origin

nickel

origin description

element name

U.S. Towns Named After Elements

Nickel, Texas

Quantity

Nickel Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

8.4×101 ppm

Earth's Mantle

1860 ppm

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

5.20%

Bulk Earth

18200 ppm

Ocean Water

0.002 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

460 ppm

Ridge

430 ppm

River Water

0.0003 ppm

U.S. Coal

14 ppm

Human Body

15 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

<0.7 ppm

Human Hair

0.2 ppm to 6.5 ppm

Human Kidney

0.6 ppm to 1.8 ppm

Human Liver

0.02 ppm to 1.8 ppm

Human Muscle

1 ppm to 2 ppm

Human Nail

0.03 ppm to 12 ppm

Ferns

1.5 ppm

Fungi

1.8×103 ppm

Solar System

4.93×104

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

6.25 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

6.23 ± 0.01

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Halley's Comet

4.1 ± 2.1 atoms

number of atoms for every 100 atoms of magnesium

Quantity

Nickel Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

nickel

German

Nickel

Italian

nichel

Spanish

niquel

Portuguese

niquel

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

nickelide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

nickel (general)

Ni2+, nickel(2+)

Ni3+, nickel(3+)

Ligands

nickelido

Heteroatomic Anion

nickelate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

nickela

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

nickely

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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