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Barium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Ba

Atomic Number

56

Atomic Weight

Rounded

137.3

for regular calculations

Standard

137.327 ± 0.007

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

2

Pauling Electronegativity

0.89

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

1S0

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.211664 eV     

II  (2)

10.00383 eV      

III (3)

35.844 ± 0.002 eV

IV  (4)

47.03 ± 0.33 eV  

see all 56 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.14462 ± 0.00006 eV

 1166.4 ± 0.5 cm-1  

Density

liquid, 1000.15 K

3.325 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

3.620 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

38.16 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 bar

1000 ± 3 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

2170.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

295 K

18.4 W/(m K)

estimated

273.2 K

18.5 W/(m K)

estimated

250 K

18.6 W/(m K)

estimated

223.2 K

19.0 W/(m K)

estimated

200 K

19.4 W/(m K)

estimated

173.2 K

19.9 W/(m K)

estimated

150 K

20.5 W/(m K)

estimated

4 K

39.0 W/(m K)

estimated

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

196 pm

double bond

161 pm

triple bond

149 pm

Atomic Radius

224 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

7.66 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

150.9 kJ/mol

Quantity

Barium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.211664 eV     

II  (2)

10.00383 eV      

III (3)

35.844 ± 0.002 eV

IV  (4)

47.03 ± 0.33 eV  

see all 56 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.14462 ± 0.00006 eV

 1166.4 ± 0.5 cm-1  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

37441 eV  

LI   (2s)

 5989 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 5624 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 5247 eV  

see all 17 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

1S0

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

54.8861

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

54.8861

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

20.6234

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

41.2468

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 12 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

94.9%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.900

ωL1

0.052

ωL2

0.096

ωL3

0.097

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.19 

F13

0.25 

F23

0.159

Quantity

Barium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1000.15 K

3.325 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

3.620 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

137.3 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

137.327 ± 0.007 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

38.16 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery-yellow metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

20.6×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid, 293 K

1620 m/s

calculated value

Young's Modulus

12.8 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.280

Electrical Resistivity

solid

200 K

20.2×10-8 Ohm m

273.15 K

30.2×10-8 Ohm m

293 K

33.2×10-8 Ohm m

300 K

34.3×10-8 Ohm m

400 K

51.4×10-8 Ohm m

see all 45 resistivities ...

Contact Potential

1.73 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

2.48 eV

Thermionic Work Function

2.11 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

18 GPa

5 K

maximum temperature

Mineralogical Hardness

1.25

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

10.3 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0997 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

38 cm3

Quantity

Barium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

2

Pauling Electronegativity

0.89

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity

hybridsp

0.88

Sanderson Electronegativity

0.683

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

0.97

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

5.211 eV

Pauling units

0.881   

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

0.89

Nagle Electronegativity

0.98

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

2.4 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

0.9

Free Electron Fermi Surface Parameters

300 K

electron concentration

3.20×1022 cm-3

radius parameter

3.69

fermi wavevector

0.98×108 cm-1

fermi velocity

1.13×108 cm/s

fermi energy

3.65 eV

fermi temperature

4.24×104 K

Chemical Hardness

2.9 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

183 kJ/mol    

per atom

  1.90 eV/atom

Quantity

Barium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 bar

1000 ± 3 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

2170.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

295 K

18.4 W/(m K)

estimated

273.2 K

18.5 W/(m K)

estimated

250 K

18.6 W/(m K)

estimated

223.2 K

19.0 W/(m K)

estimated

200 K

19.4 W/(m K)

estimated

173.2 K

19.9 W/(m K)

estimated

150 K

20.5 W/(m K)

estimated

4 K

39.0 W/(m K)

estimated

Critical Point

3270 K

Vapor Pressure

1897 °C

100 kPa

1413 °C

10 kPa

1115 °C

1 kPa

912 °C

100 Pa

765 °C

10 Pa

638 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

7.66 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

150.9 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

28.07 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.204 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

2.7 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

111 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

116 K

Quantity

Barium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-39-3

DOT Number

1400

ICSC Number

1052

RTECS Number

CQ8370000

UN Number

1400

Quantity

Barium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

224 pm

Orbital Radius

206.0 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

196 pm

double bond

161 pm

triple bond

149 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

215 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 6

149 pm

coordination number: 7

152 pm

coordination number: 8

156 pm

coordination number: 9

161 pm

coordination number: 10

166 pm

coordination number: 11

171 pm

coordination number: 12

175 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 6

135 pm

coordination number: 7

138 pm

coordination number: 8

142 pm

coordination number: 9

147 pm

coordination number: 10

152 pm

coordination number: 11

157 pm

coordination number: 12

161 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

135 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

153 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

2.7×102 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

305 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

215 pm

Quantity

Barium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-barium

symbol

αBa

allotrope

β-barium

symbol

βBa

allotrope

γ-barium

symbol

γBa

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

435 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

1.60×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Barium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1808

discoverer

Humphry Davy

birth

December 17, 1778

death

May 29, 1829

location of discovery

London, England

Origin of Element Name

origin

barys

origin description

property—Greek for heavy

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Ba

origin

barium

origin description

element name

U.S. Towns Named After Elements

Barium Springs, North Carolina

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

plutonium

no matching symbol specified

name

barytium

no matching symbol specified

Quantity

Barium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

4.25×102 ppm

Earth's Mantle

6750 ppb

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

4.5 ppm

Ocean Water

0.03 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

6230 ppm

Ridge

6000 ppm

River Water

0.01 ppm

U.S. Coal

170 ppm

Human Body

22 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

3 ppm to 70 ppm

Human Hair

0.55 ppm to 4 ppm

Human Kidney

0.04 ppm to 1 ppm

Human Liver

0.04 ppm to 1.2 ppm

Human Muscle

0.09 ppm

Human Nail

7.5 ppm

Ferns

8 ppm

Solar System

4.49

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

2.13 ± 0.05

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

2.21 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Barium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

baryum

German

Barium

Italian

bario

Spanish

bario

Portuguese

bário

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

baride

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

barium

Ligands

barido

Heteroatomic Anion

barate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

bara

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

bary

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