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Manganese Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Mn

Atomic Number

25

Atomic Weight

Rounded

54.94

for regular calculations

Standard

54.938045 ± 0.000005

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 7

more common with disagreement

 6

less common with disagreement

 5

less common with disagreement

 4

more common with disagreement

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

more common

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

-3

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.55

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d5 4s2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d5

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

6S5/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.43402 eV      

II  (2)

15.6400 eV       

III (3)

33.668 ± 0.010 eV

IV  (4)

51.2 ± 0.1 eV    

see all 25 energies ...

Electron Affinity

<0 eV

<0 cm-1

Density

liquid, 1519.15 K

6.430 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

7.300 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

7.35 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 bar

1519 ± 5 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

2334.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

7.82 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

298.2 K

7.81 W/(m K)

273.2 K

7.68 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

250 K

7.54 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

200 K

7.17 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

see all 37 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

119 pm

double bond

105 pm

triple bond

103 pm

Atomic Radius

137 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

14.4 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

219.7 kJ/mol

Quantity

Manganese Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.43402 eV      

II  (2)

15.6400 eV       

III (3)

33.668 ± 0.010 eV

IV  (4)

51.2 ± 0.1 eV    

see all 25 energies ...

Electron Affinity

<0 eV

<0 cm-1

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

6539 eV  

LI   (2s)

 769.1 eV

LII  (2p1/2)

 649.9 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

 638.7 eV

see all 7 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d5 4s2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d5

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

6S5/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

24.3957

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

24.3957

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

 8.8969

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

17.794 

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 7 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

78.6%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.321  

ωL1

0.00084

ωL2

0.0050 

ωL3

0.0050 

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.30

F13

0.58

Quantity

Manganese Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1519.15 K

6.430 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

7.300 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

54.94 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

54.938045 ± 0.000005 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

7.35 cm3/mol

Physical Form

hard gray metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

21.7×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid, 20 °C, longitudinal wave

4600 m/s

Specific Gravity

68 °F, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F)

7.20

Young's Modulus

191 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.240

Electrical Resistivity

solid

200 K

139.1×10-8 Ohm m

273 K

143.0×10-8 Ohm m

293 K

144.0×10-8 Ohm m

300 K

144.2×10-8 Ohm m

400 K

147.7×10-8 Ohm m

see all 28 resistivities ...

Contact Potential

4.14 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

3.76 eV

Thermionic Work Function

3.83 eV

Mineralogical Hardness

6.0

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

59.6 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0168 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

7 cm3

Quantity

Manganese Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 7

more common with disagreement

 6

less common with disagreement

 5

less common with disagreement

 4

more common with disagreement

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

more common

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

-3

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.55

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 7

4.36

oxidation state: 6

3.82

oxidation state: 5

3.28

oxidation state: 4

2.74

oxidation state: 3

2.20

oxidation state: 2

1.66

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.60

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

10.34 eV

Pauling units

 1.75   

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.55

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

3.4349 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.36

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

3.72 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.85

oxidation state: 2

1.5

Chemical Hardness

3.72 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

282 kJ/mol    

per atom

  2.92 eV/atom

Quantity

Manganese Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 bar

1519 ± 5 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

2334.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

7.82 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

298.2 K

7.81 W/(m K)

273.2 K

7.68 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

250 K

7.54 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

200 K

7.17 W/(m K)

extrapolated or interpolated

see all 37 conductivities ...

Critical Point

4327 K

Vapor Pressure

2060 °C

100 kPa

1682 °C

10 kPa

1418 °C

1 kPa

1220 °C

100 Pa

1074 °C

10 Pa

955 °C

1 Pa

Neel Point

α-manganese

100 K

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

14.4 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

219.7 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

26.32 J/(mol K)

α-manganese, 298.15 K, 1 bar

26.32 J/(mol K)

β-manganese, 298.15 K, 1 bar

26.53 J/(mol K)

γ-manganese, 298.15 K, 1 bar

27.57 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.479 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

12.8 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

409 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

363 K

α-manganese, Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

409 K

Quantity

Manganese Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7439-96-5

ICSC Number

0174

RTECS Number

OO9275000

Quantity

Manganese Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

137 pm

Orbital Radius

127.8 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

119 pm

double bond

105 pm

triple bond

103 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

low spin

139 pm

high spin

161 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4, high spin

 80 pm  

coordination number: 5, high spin

 89 pm  

coordination number: 6

low spin

 81 pm  

high spin

 97.0 pm

coordination number: 7, high spin

104 pm  

coordination number: 8

110 pm  

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 5

 72 pm  

coordination number: 6

low spin

 72 pm  

high spin

 78.5 pm

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 4

 53 pm  

coordination number: 6

 67.0 pm

ion charge: +5, coordination number: 4

 47 pm  

ion charge: +6, coordination number: 4

 39.5 pm

ion charge: +7

coordination number: 4

 39 pm  

coordination number: 6

 60 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 4, high spin

66 pm  

coordination number: 5, high spin

75 pm  

coordination number: 6

low spin

67 pm  

high spin

83.0 pm

coordination number: 7, high spin

90 pm  

coordination number: 8

96 pm  

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 5

58 pm  

coordination number: 6

low spin

58 pm  

high spin

64.5 pm

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 4

39 pm  

coordination number: 6

53.0 pm

ion charge: +5, coordination number: 4

33 pm  

ion charge: +6, coordination number: 4

25.5 pm

ion charge: +7

coordination number: 4

25 pm  

coordination number: 6

46 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +7

46 pm

ion charge: +4

54 pm

ion charge: +3

66 pm

ion charge: +2

80 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

75 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

205 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

225 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

140 pm

Quantity

Manganese Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-manganese

symbol

αMn

allotrope

β-manganese

symbol

βMn

allotrope

γ-manganese

symbol

γMn

allotrope

δ-manganese

symbol

δMn

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

224 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

8.18×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Manganese History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1774

discoverer

Johan Gottlieb Gahn

birth

August 19, 1745

death

December 8, 1818

location of discovery

Stockholm, Sweden

Origin of Element Name

origin

magnes

origin description

property—Latin for magnet

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Mn

origin

manganese

origin description

element name

U.S. Towns Named After Elements

Manganese, Minnesota

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

symbol

Ma

Quantity

Manganese Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

9.50×102 ppm

Earth's Mantle

1050 ppm

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

300 ppm

Bulk Earth

800 ppm

Ocean Water

0.002 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

6.1%

Ridge

6%

River Water

≈0.005 ppm

U.S. Coal

43 ppm

Human Body

12 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Bone

0.2 ppm to 100 ppm

Human Hair

0.25 ppm to 5.7 ppm

Human Kidney

3.3 ppm

Human Liver

3.6 ppm to 9.6 ppm

Human Muscle

0.2 ppm to 2.3 ppm

Human Nail

0.04 ppm to 2.1 ppm

Bacteria

260 ppm

Ferns

700 ppm

Fungi

10 ppm to 400 ppm

Solar System

9550

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

5.39 ± 0.03

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

5.52 ± 0.01

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Halley's Comet

0.5 ± 0.2 atoms

number of atoms for every 100 atoms of magnesium

Quantity

Manganese Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

manganèse

German

Mangan

Italian

manganese

Spanish

manganeso

Portuguese

manganês

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

manganide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

manganese (general)

Mn2+, manganese(2+)

Mn3+, manganese(3+)

Ligands

manganido

Heteroatomic Anion

manganate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

mangana

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

mangany

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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