Ruthenium

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Ruthenium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Ru

Atomic Number

44

Atomic Weight

Rounded

101.1

for regular calculations

Standard

101.07 ± 0.02

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

8

less common with disagreement

7

less common

6

less common with disagreement

5

less common

4

more common with disagreement

3

more common

2

less common with disagreement

1

less common

0

less common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

2.2

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d7 5s1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s1 4d7

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

5F5

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.36050 eV

II  (2)

16.76 eV   

III (3)

28.47 eV   

Electron Affinity

1.04638 ± 0.00025 eV

 8439.6 ± 2.0 cm-1  

Density

liquid, 2607.15 K

10.900 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

12.100 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

8.17 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

2606 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point (melting point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

4592 ± 30 K

reference stated that the uncertainty may be larger than indicated

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

114 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

117 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

118 W/(m K)

see all 49 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

125 pm

double bond

114 pm

triple bond

103 pm

Atomic Radius

134 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

23.7 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

567.8 kJ/mol

Quantity

Ruthenium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 7.36050 eV

II  (2)

16.76 eV   

III (3)

28.47 eV   

Electron Affinity

1.04638 ± 0.00025 eV

 8439.6 ± 2.0 cm-1  

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

22117 eV  

LI   (2s)

 3224 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 2967 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 2838 eV  

see all 12 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Kr] 4d7 5s1

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Orbital Filling Order

[Kr] 5s1 4d7

[Kr] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of krypton

Term Symbol

5F5

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

43.0923

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

43.0923

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

16.1899

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

32.3798

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 10 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

87.0%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.796

ωL1

0.012

ωL2

0.040

ωL3

0.043

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.10 

F13

0.57 

F23

0.124

Quantity

Ruthenium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 2607.15 K

10.900 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

12.100 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

101.1 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

101.07 ± 0.02 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

8.17 cm3/mol

Physical Form

silvery-white metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

6.4×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

293 K

5970 m/s

calculated value

Young's Modulus

432 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.250

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

7.4×10-8 Ohm m

Contact Potential

4.52 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

ambient pressure

0.51 K

0 Pa

0.51 K

Superconducting Critical Magnetic Field at Absolute Zero

70×10-4 T

Mineralogical Hardness

6.5

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

320.8 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.00311 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

8 cm3

Quantity

Ruthenium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

8

less common with disagreement

7

less common

6

less common with disagreement

5

less common

4

more common with disagreement

3

more common

2

less common with disagreement

1

less common

0

less common

2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

2.2

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.42

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

9.100 eV

Pauling units

1.54    

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

3.3360 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.35

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

4.5 eV

Chemical Hardness

3.0 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

650 kJ/mol    

per atom

  6.74 eV/atom

Quantity

Ruthenium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

2606 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point (melting point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

4592 ± 30 K

reference stated that the uncertainty may be larger than indicated

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

114 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

117 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

118 W/(m K)

see all 49 conductivities ...

Critical Point

9600 K

Vapor Pressure

4592 K

1 atm

4588 K

1 bar

3965 K

1×10-1 bar

3498 K

1×10-2 bar

2606 K

1.045×10-5 bar

melting point

see all 19 pressures ...

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

23.7 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

567.8 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

24.06 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.238 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

3.1 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

555 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

415 K

Quantity

Ruthenium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-18-8

Quantity

Ruthenium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

134 pm

Orbital Radius

141.0 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

125 pm

double bond

114 pm

triple bond

103 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

146 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

82 pm  

ion charge: +4, coordination number: 6

76.0 pm

ion charge: +5, coordination number: 6

70.5 pm

ion charge: +7, coordination number: 4

52 pm  

ion charge: +8, coordination number: 4

50 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

68 pm  

ion charge: +4, coordination number: 6

62.0 pm

ion charge: +5, coordination number: 6

56.5 pm

ion charge: +7, coordination number: 4

38 pm  

ion charge: +8, coordination number: 4

36 pm  

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

205 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

237 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

130 pm

Quantity

Ruthenium Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

265 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

7.36×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Ruthenium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1844

discoverer

Karl Karlovich Klaus

birth

January 23, 1796

death

March 24, 1864

location of discovery

Kazan, Russia

Origin of Element Name

origin

Ruthenia

origin description

place—Latin for Russia

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Ru

origin

ruthenium

origin description

element name

Formerly Used or Proposed Element Names and Symbols

name

vestium

no matching symbol specified

Quantity

Ruthenium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

1×10-3 ppm

Earth's Mantle

4.55 ppb

primitive mantle

Earth's Core

4 ppm

Bulk Earth

1.3 ppm

Ocean Water

7×10-7 ppm

U.S. Coal

<0.001 ppm

estimated from USGS and literature data

Solar System

1.86

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

1.84 ± 0.07

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

1.82 ± 0.04

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Ruthenium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

ruthénium

German

Ruthenium

Italian

rutenio

Spanish

rutenio

Portuguese

ruténio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

ruthenide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

ruthenium

Ligands

ruthenido

Heteroatomic Anion

ruthenate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

ruthena

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

rutheny

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