Titanium

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Titanium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Ti

Atomic Number

22

Atomic Weight

Rounded

47.87

for regular calculations

Standard

47.867 ± 0.001

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

 4

more common

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common with disagreement

 0

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.54

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d2 4s2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

3F2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.82812 eV        

II  (2)

13.5755 eV         

III (3)

27.4919 ± 0.0002 eV

IV  (4)

43.2675 ± 0.0002 eV

see all 22 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.084 ± 0.009 eV

  680 ± 70 cm-1 

Density

15500 K, 0.7 GPa

0.5 g/cm3  

critical point, predicted for the vapor and the insulating liquid region

liquid, 1941.15 K

4.110 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

4.506 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

10.64 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1 atm

1943 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point (melting point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

3560.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

20.4 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

21.9 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

21.9 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

22.4 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

24.5 W/(m K)

see all 46 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

136 pm

double bond

117 pm

triple bond

108 pm

Atomic Radius

147 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

20.9 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

428.9 kJ/mol

Quantity

Titanium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 6.82812 eV        

II  (2)

13.5755 eV         

III (3)

27.4919 ± 0.0002 eV

IV  (4)

43.2675 ± 0.0002 eV

see all 22 energies ...

Electron Affinity

0.084 ± 0.009 eV

  680 ± 70 cm-1 

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

4966 eV  

LI   (2s)

 560.9 eV

LII  (2p1/2)

 460.2 eV

LIII (2p3/2)

 453.8 eV

see all 7 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Ar] 3d2 4s2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Orbital Filling Order

[Ar] 4s2 3d2

[Ar] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of argon

Term Symbol

3F2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

21.4409

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

21.4409

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

 7.6883

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

15.377 

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 7 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

82.5%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.226  

ωL1

0.00047

ωL2

0.0015 

ωL3

0.0015 

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.31

F13

0.59

Quantity

Titanium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

15500 K, 0.7 GPa

0.5 g/cm3  

critical point, predicted for the vapor and the insulating liquid region

liquid, 1941.15 K

4.110 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

4.506 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

47.87 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

47.867 ± 0.001 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

10.64 cm3/mol

Physical Form

gray metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

8.6×10-6 K-1

Speed of Sound

solid

room temperature, longitudinal wave

6070 m/s

room temperature, shear wave

3125 m/s

room temperature, extensional wave

5090 m/s

20 °C

longitudinal wave

6130 m/s

shear wave

3182 m/s

Young's Modulus

α-titanium

120.2 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

α-titanium

0.361

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

43.1×10-8 Ohm m

Contact Potential

4.14 eV

Photoelectric Work Function

4.06 eV

Thermionic Work Function

3.95 eV

Superconducting Transition Temperature

ambient pressure

0.39 K

56.0 GPa

3.35 K

maximum temperature

0 Pa

0.39 K

α-titanium

0.38 K

β-titanium

6.4 K 

Superconducting Critical Magnetic Field at Absolute Zero

100×10-4 T

Mineralogical Hardness

6.0

Vickers Hardness

iodide, purity - 99.9%

293 K

971 MN/m2

673 K

491 MN/m2

see all 6 hardnesses ...

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

105.1 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.00951 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

11 cm3

Quantity

Titanium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

 4

more common

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common with disagreement

 0

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

Pauling Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.54

Sanderson Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.50

oxidation state: 3

1.09

oxidation state: 2

0.73

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.32

Configuration Energy

electron volt units

8.170 eV

Pauling units

1.38    

Allred Electronegativity

oxidation state: 2

1.54

Ghosh-Gupta Electronegativity

3.0040 eV

Nagle Electronegativity

1.23

Pearson Absolute Electronegativity

3.45 eV

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 4

1.65

oxidation state: 3

1.5

Chemical Hardness

3.37 eV

Cohesive Energy

per mole

468 kJ/mol    

per atom

  4.85 eV/atom

Quantity

Titanium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1 atm

1943 K

ITS-90 second-quality, secondary reference point (melting point)

Boiling Point

1 atm

3560.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

400 K, polycrystalline

20.4 W/(m K)

300 K, polycrystalline

21.9 W/(m K)

298.2 K, polycrystalline

21.9 W/(m K)

273.2 K, polycrystalline

22.4 W/(m K)

200 K, polycrystalline

24.5 W/(m K)

see all 46 conductivities ...

Critical Point

temperature

15500 K

predicted for the vapor and the insulating liquid region

pressure

0.7 GPa

Vapor Pressure

3285 °C

100 kPa

2791 °C

10 kPa

2419 °C

1 kPa

2130 °C

100 Pa

1898 °C

10 Pa

1709 °C

1 Pa

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

20.9 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

428.9 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

25.060 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.523 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

3.36 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

420 K

Room Temperature ( 298 K )

380 K

Quantity

Titanium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-32-6

DOT Number

powder, dry

2546

sponge granules

2878

sponge powders

2878

Quantity

Titanium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

147 pm

Orbital Radius

147.7 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

136 pm

double bond

117 pm

triple bond

108 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

160 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2, coordination number: 6

100 pm  

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

 81.0 pm

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 4

 56 pm  

coordination number: 5

 65 pm  

coordination number: 6

 74.5 pm

coordination number: 8

 88 pm  

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +2, coordination number: 6

86 pm  

ion charge: +3, coordination number: 6

67.0 pm

ion charge: +4

coordination number: 4

42 pm  

coordination number: 5

51 pm  

coordination number: 6

60.5 pm

coordination number: 8

74 pm  

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +4

68 pm

ion charge: +3

76 pm

ion charge: +2

90 pm

Pauling Univalent Radius

ion charge: +1

96 pm

Batsanov Crystallographic Van Der Waals Radius

215 pm

Batsanov Equilibrium Van Der Waals Radius

244 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

140 pm

Quantity

Titanium Crystal Structure

Notes

Allotropes

allotrope

α-titanium

symbol

αTi

allotrope

β-titanium

symbol

βTi

allotrope

ω-titanium

symbol

ωTi

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

289 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

5.66×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Titanium History

Notes

Discovery

shared discovery

date of discovery

1795

discoverer

Martin Heinrich Klaproth

birth

December 1, 1743

death

January 1, 1817

location of discovery

Berlin, Germany

shared discovery

date of discovery

1791

discoverer

William Gregor

birth

December 25, 1761

death

June 11 (or July 11), 1817

location of discovery

Creed, in Cornwall, England

Origin of Element Name

origin

titans

origin description

mythical—Sons of the Earth goddess

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Ti

origin

titanium

origin description

element name

Quantity

Titanium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

5.65×103 ppm

Earth's Mantle

1280 ppm

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

810 ppm

Ocean Water

0.001 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Ridge

240 ppm

River Water

0.003 ppm

U.S. Coal

0.08%

Human Body

20 mg

based on a 70 kg "reference man"

Human Hair

0.08 ppm to 14 ppm

Human Kidney

1 ppm

Human Liver

1.2 ppm to 4.7 ppm

Human Muscle

0.9 ppm to 2.2 ppm

Human Nail

0.28 ppm

Ferns

5.3 ppm

Fungi

<8 ppm

Solar System

2400

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

5.02 ± 0.06

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Moon

Terrae

0.15 ± 0.08 %

Maria

1.1 ± 0.6 %

Average

0.3%

Meteorites

4.93 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Halley's Comet

0.4 ± 0.2 atoms

number of atoms for every 100 atoms of magnesium

Quantity

Titanium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

titane

German

Titan

Italian

titanio

Spanish

titanio

Portuguese

titânio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

titanide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

titanium

Ligands

titanido

Heteroatomic Anion

titanate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

titana

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

titany

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

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