Europium

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Europium Quick Reference

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Notes

Symbol

Eu

Atomic Number

63

Atomic Weight

Rounded

152.0

for regular calculations

Standard

151.964 ± 0.001

for precise calculations

Oxidation States

3

more common

2

less common with disagreement

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f7 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f7

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

8S7/2

see expanded configuration ...

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.67038 eV    

II  (2)

11.25 eV       

III (3)

24.92 ± 0.10 eV

IV  (4)

42.7 ± 0.6 eV  

Electron Affinity

0.864 ± 0.024 eV

Density

liquid, 1095.15 K

4.870 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

5.240 g/cm3

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

28.97 cm3/mol

Melting Point

1095 ± 5 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

1802.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

13.9 W/(m K)

estimated

298.2 K

13.9 W/(m K)

estimated

273.2 K

14.0 W/(m K)

estimated

200 K

14.8 W/(m K)

estimated

see all 9 conductivities ...

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

168 pm

double bond

134 pm

Atomic Radius

199 pm

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

10.5 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

175.7 kJ/mol

Quantity

Europium Atomic Structure

Notes

Ionization Energies

I   (1)

 5.67038 eV    

II  (2)

11.25 eV       

III (3)

24.92 ± 0.10 eV

IV  (4)

42.7 ± 0.6 eV  

Electron Affinity

0.864 ± 0.024 eV

Electron Binding Energies

K    (1s)

48519 eV  

LI   (2s)

 8052 eV  

LII  (2p1/2)

 7617 eV  

LIII (2p3/2)

 6977 eV  

see all 19 energies ...

Electron Configuration

Orbital Occupancy

[Xe] 4f7 6s2

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Orbital Filling Order

[Xe] 6s2 4f7

[Xe] represents the closed-shell electron configuration of xenon

Term Symbol

8S7/2

see expanded configuration ...

Clementi-Raimondi Effective Nuclear Charge

1s

Orbital Exponent

61.7609

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

1

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

61.7609

Zeff = ζ × n

2s

Orbital Exponent

23.2354

ζ

Principle Quantum Number

2

n

Effective Nuclear Charge

46.4708

Zeff = ζ × n

see all 13 effective nuclear charges ...

Screening Percentage

92.0%

Fluorescence Yields

ωK

0.929

ωL1

0.08 

ωL2

0.164

ωL3

0.158

Coster-Kronig Yields

F12

0.19 

F13

0.25 

F23

0.152

Quantity

Europium Physical Properties

Notes

Density

liquid, 1095.15 K

4.870 g/ml 

solid, 25 °C

5.240 g/cm3

Molar Mass

Rounded

152.0 g/mol

for regular calculations

Standard

151.964 ± 0.001 g/mol

for precise calculations

Molar Volume

solid, 298 K, 1 atm

28.97 cm3/mol

Physical Form

soft silvery metal

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient

25 °C

35.0×10-6 K-1

Young's Modulus

18.2 GPa

Poisson's Ratio

0.152

Electrical Resistivity

solid, 295 K

89×10-8 Ohm m

Superconducting Transition Temperature

142 GPa

2.75 K

maximum temperature

80 GPa

1.8 K 

Vickers Hardness

cast, 293 K

167 MN/m2

Isothermal Bulk Modulus

300 K

14.7 GPa

Isothermal Compressibility

300 K

0.0680 GPa-1

Gram Atomic Volume

29 cm3

Quantity

Europium Atomic Interaction

Notes

Oxidation States

3

more common

2

less common with disagreement

Allred-Rochow Electronegativity

1.01

Nagle Electronegativity

1.06

Smith Electronegativity

oxidation state: 3

1.3

oxidation state: 2

0.9

Cohesive Energy

per mole

179 kJ/mol    

per atom

  1.86 eV/atom

Quantity

Europium Thermodynamics

Notes

Melting Point

1095 ± 5 K

Boiling Point

1 atm

1802.15 K

Thermal Conductivity

solid

300 K

13.9 W/(m K)

estimated

298.2 K

13.9 W/(m K)

estimated

273.2 K

14.0 W/(m K)

estimated

200 K

14.8 W/(m K)

estimated

see all 9 conductivities ...

Critical Point

4600 K

Vapor Pressure

1523 °C

100 kPa

1179 °C

10 kPa

961 °C

1 kPa

799 °C

100 Pa

684 °C

10 Pa

590 °C

1 Pa

Neel Point

91 K

Enthalpy of Fusion

1 atm

10.5 kJ/mol

Enthalpy of Vaporization

1 atm

175.7 kJ/mol

Isobaric Molar Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

27.66 J/(mol K)

Isobaric Specific Heat Capacity

298.15 K, 1 bar

0.182 J/(g K)

Electronic Heat Capacity Coefficient

6 ± 1 mJ/(mol K2)

Debye Temperature

Low Temperature Limit ( 0 K )

118 K

Quantity

Europium Identification

Notes

CAS Number

7440-53-1

Quantity

Europium Atomic Size

Notes

Atomic Radius

199 pm

Orbital Radius

182.6 pm

Pyykkö Covalent Radius

single bond

168 pm

double bond

134 pm

Cordero Covalent Radius

198 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Crystal Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 6

131 pm  

coordination number: 7

134 pm  

coordination number: 8

139 pm  

coordination number: 9

144 pm  

coordination number: 10

149 pm  

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

108.7 pm

coordination number: 7

115 pm  

coordination number: 8

120.6 pm

coordination number: 9

126.0 pm

Shannon-Prewitt Effective Ionic Radius

ion charge: +2

coordination number: 6

117 pm  

coordination number: 7

120 pm  

coordination number: 8

125 pm  

coordination number: 9

130 pm  

coordination number: 10

135 pm  

ion charge: +3

coordination number: 6

 94.7 pm

coordination number: 7

101 pm  

coordination number: 8

106.6 pm

coordination number: 9

112.0 pm

Pauling Empirical Crystal Radius

ion charge: +3

103 pm

ion charge: +2

112 pm

Slater Atomic-Ionic Radius

185 pm

Quantity

Europium Crystal Structure

Notes

Nearest Neighbor Distance

300 K, 1 atm

396 pm

Atomic Concentration

300 K, 1 atm

2.04×1022 cm-3

Quantity

Europium History

Notes

Discovery

date of discovery

1901

discoverer

Eugène-Anatole Demarçay

birth

January 1, 1852

death

1904

location of discovery

Paris, France

Origin of Element Name

origin

Europe

origin description

place

Origin of Element Symbol

symbol: Eu

origin

europium

origin description

element name

Quantity

Europium Abundances

Notes

Earth's Crust

2.0 ppm

Earth's Mantle

162 ppb

primitive mantle

Bulk Earth

0.10 ppm

Ocean Water

1.3×10-7 ppm

Metalliferous Ocean Sediment

Basal

5.4 ppm

Ridge

1.5 ppm

U.S. Coal

0.40 ppm

Solar System

0.0973

number of atoms for every 106 atoms of silicon

Sun

0.51 ± 0.08

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Meteorites

0.55 ± 0.02

base 10 log of the number of atoms for every 1012 atoms of hydrogen

Quantity

Europium Nomenclature

Notes

Element Names in Other Languages

French

europium

German

Europium

Italian

europio

Spanish

europio

Portuguese

európio

Anions or Anionic Substituent Groups

europide

Cations or Cationic Substituent Groups

europium

Ligands

europido

Heteroatomic Anion

europate

'a' Term—Substitutive Nomenclature

europa

'y' Term—Chains and Rings Nomenclature

europy

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