Solutions manuals and the Numerari scientific calculator from KnowledgeDoor Learn more about our solutions manuals Learn more about Numerari

Oxidation States Navigation

By Name

By Symbol

By Number

Element

Oxidation States

Click button to see citations

Notes

Radon

 2

less common

 0

more common with disagreement

Rhenium

 7

less common with disagreement

 6

less common

 5

more common with disagreement

 4

more common

 3

more common with disagreement

 2

less common with disagreement

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-3

less common

Rhodium

 6

less common

 5

less common

 4

less common with disagreement

 3

more common

 2

less common with disagreement

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

Roentgenium

 3

predicted

-1

predicted

Rubidium

 1

more common

-1

less common

Ruthenium

 8

less common with disagreement

 7

less common

 6

less common with disagreement

 5

less common

 4

more common with disagreement

 3

more common

 2

less common with disagreement

 1

less common

 0

less common

 2

less common

Rutherfordium

 4

more common

 3

unverified

Samarium

 3

more common

 2

less common

Scandium

 3

more common

 2

less common

 1

less common

Seaborgium

 6

predicted

 5

predicted

 4

predicted

Selenium

 6

less common with disagreement

 4

more common with disagreement

 2

less common with disagreement

 1

less common

-2

more common with disagreement

Silicon

 4

more common

 3

less common

 2

less common

 1

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

-3

less common

-4

less common with disagreement

Silver

 3

less common

 2

less common

 1

more common

 0

less common

Sodium

 1

more common

-1

less common

Strontium

 2

Sulfur

 6

more common with disagreement

 5

less common

 4

less common with disagreement

 3

less common

 2

less common with disagreement

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-2

more common with disagreement

Tantalum

 5

more common

 4

less common with disagreement

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common

 1

less common

-1

less common

-3

less common

Technetium

 7

more common with disagreement

 6

less common with disagreement

 5

less common with disagreement

 4

more common

 3

less common

 2

less common

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-3

less common

Tellurium

 6

less common with disagreement

 5

less common

 4

more common

 2

less common with disagreement

-1

less common

-2

less common with disagreement

Terbium

 4

less common

 3

more common

 1

less common

Thallium

 3

more common with disagreement

 1

more common with disagreement

Thorium

 4

more common

 3

less common

 2

less common

Thulium

 3

more common

 2

less common

Tin

 4

less common with disagreement

 2

more common with disagreement

-4

more common

Titanium

 4

more common

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common with disagreement

 0

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

Tungsten

 6

more common with disagreement

 5

less common with disagreement

 4

more common with disagreement

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common with disagreement

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-2

less common

-4

less common

Ununoctium

 8

predicted

 6

predicted

 4

predicted

 2

predicted

Ununpentium

 3

predicted

 1

predicted

Ununtrium

 1

Uranium

 6

more common

 5

less common

 4

less common

 3

less common

 2

unverified

Vanadium

 5

more common

 4

more common with disagreement

 3

more common with disagreement

 2

less common with disagreement

 1

less common

 0

less common

-1

less common

-3

less common

Xenon

 8

less common

 6

less common with disagreement

 4

less common with disagreement

 3

less common

 2

less common with disagreement

 0

more common with disagreement

Ytterbium

 3

more common

 2

less common

Yttrium

 3

more common

 2

less common

Zinc

 2

more common

 1

less common

 0

less common

Zirconium

 4

more common

 3

less common with disagreement

 2

less common

 1

less common

 0

less common

-2

less common

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

Ebbing, Darrell D., and Steven D. Gammon. General Chemistry, 8th edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.

Emsley, John. The Elements, 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Greenwood, N. N., and A. Earnshaw. Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.

Huheey, James E., Ellen A. Keiter, and Richard L Keiter. Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1993.

Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas, and Peter Scott. The f Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Keller, Jr., O. Lewin, and Glenn T. Seaborg. "Chemistry of the Transactinide Elements." pp. 139–166 in Annual Review Of Nuclear Science. Edited by Emilio Segre. Palo Alto, California: Annual Reviews Inc., 1977.

Oxtoby, David W., H. P. Gillis, and Alan Campion. Principles of Modern Chemistry, 6th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2008.

Seaborg, Glenn T., and Walter D. Loveland. The Elements Beyond Uranium. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1990.