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By Symbol

By Number

Element

Discovery

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Copernicium

date of discovery

1996

discoverer

S. Hofmann

discoverer

V. Ninov

discoverer

F. P. Heßberger

discoverer

P. Armbruster

discoverer

H. Folger

discoverer

G. Münzenberg

discoverer

H.-J. Schött

discoverer

A. G. Popeko

discoverer

A. V. Yeremin

discoverer

S. Saro

discoverer

R. Janik

discoverer

M. E. Leino

location of discovery

Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI), Darmstadt, Germany

Copper

date of discovery

prehistory

discoverer

unknown

location of discovery

unknown

Curium

date of discovery

1944

discoverer

Glenn Theodore Seaborg

birth

April 19, 1912

death

February 25, 1999

discoverer

Ralph A. James

discoverer

Albert Ghiorso

birth

July 15, 1915

location of discovery

Metallurgical Laboratory, Chicago, Illinois

Darmstadtium

date of discovery

1994

discoverer

S. Hofmann

discoverer

V. Ninov

discoverer

F. P. Heßberger

discoverer

P. Armbruster

discoverer

H. Folger

discoverer

G. Münzenberg

discoverer

H.-J. Schött

discoverer

A. G. Popeko

discoverer

A. V. Yeremin

discoverer

A. N. Andreyev

discoverer

S. Saro

discoverer

R. Janik

discoverer

M. E. Leino

location of discovery

Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI), Darmstadt, Germany

Dubnium

date of discovery

1970

discoverer

Albert Ghiorso

birth

July 15, 1915

discoverer

Matti Nurmia

discoverer

Kari Eskola

discoverer

James Harris

discoverer

Pirkko Eskola

location of discovery

Berkeley, California

Dysprosium

date of discovery

1886

discoverer

Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran

birth

April 18, 1838

death

May 28, 1912

location of discovery

Paris, France

Einsteinium

date of discovery

1952

discoverer

Albert Ghiorso

birth

July 15, 1915

discoverer

Stanley G. Thompson

death

July 16, 1976

discoverer

Gary H. Higgins

discoverer

Glenn Theodore Seaborg

birth

April 19, 1912

death

February 25, 1999

discoverer

Martin H. Studier

discoverer

Paul R. Fields

discoverer

Sherman M. Fried

discoverer

Herbert Diamond

discoverer

Joseph F. Mech

discoverer

Gray L. Pyle

discoverer

John R. Huizenga

discoverer

A. Hirsch

discoverer

Winston M. Manning

discoverer

Charles I. Browne

discoverer

H. Louise Smith

discoverer

Rod W. Spence

location of discovery

Berkeley, California

Erbium

date of discovery

1843

discoverer

Carl Gustav Mosander

birth

September 10, 1797

death

October 15, 1858

location of discovery

Stockholm, Sweden

Europium

date of discovery

1901

discoverer

Eugène-Anatole Demarçay

birth

January 1, 1852

death

1904

location of discovery

Paris, France

Fermium

date of discovery

1953

discoverer

Albert Ghiorso

birth

July 15, 1915

discoverer

Stanley G. Thompson

death

July 16, 1976

discoverer

Gary H. Higgins

discoverer

Glenn Theodore Seaborg

birth

April 19, 1912

death

February 25, 1999

discoverer

Martin H. Studier

discoverer

Paul R. Fields

discoverer

Sherman M. Fried

discoverer

Herbert Diamond

discoverer

Joseph F. Mech

discoverer

Gray L. Pyle

discoverer

John R. Huizenga

discoverer

A. Hirsch

discoverer

Winston M. Manning

discoverer

Charles I. Browne

discoverer

H. Louise Smith

discoverer

Rod W. Spence

location of discovery

Berkeley, California

Flerovium

date of discovery

1999

discoverer

Yu. Ts. Oganessian

discoverer

V. K. Utyonkov

discoverer

Yu. V. Lobanov

discoverer

F. Sh. Abdullin

discoverer

A. N. Polyakov

discoverer

I. V. Shirokovsky

discoverer

Yu. S. Tsyganov

discoverer

G. G. Gulbekian

discoverer

S. L. Bogomolov

discoverer

B. N. Gikal

discoverer

A. N. Mezentsev

discoverer

S. Iliev

discoverer

V. G. Subbotin

discoverer

A. M. Sukhov

discoverer

O. V. Ivanov

discoverer

G. V. Buklanov

discoverer

K. Subotic

discoverer

M. G. Itkis

discoverer

K. J. Moody

discoverer

J. F. Wild

discoverer

N. J. Stoyer

discoverer

M. A. Stoyer

discoverer

R. W. Lougheed

location of discovery

Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia (Dubna-Livermore collaboration)

Fluorine

date of discovery

1886

discoverer

Henri Moissan

birth

September 28, 1852

death

February 20, 1907

location of discovery

Paris, France

Francium

date of discovery

1939

discoverer

Maguerite Catherine Perey

birth

1909

death

1975

location of discovery

Curie Institute, Paris, France

Gadolinium

date of discovery

1880

discoverer

Jean-Charles Galissard de Marignac

birth

April 24, 1817

death

April 15, 1894

location of discovery

Geneva, Switzerland

Gallium

date of discovery

1875

discoverer

Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran

birth

April 18, 1838

death

May 28, 1912

location of discovery

Paris, France

Germanium

date of discovery

1886

discoverer

Clemens Alexander Winkler

birth

December 26, 1838

death

October 8, 1904

location of discovery

Freiberg, Germany

Gold

date of discovery

circa 5000 BC

discoverer

unknown

location of discovery

unknown

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

Barber, Robert C., Heinz W. Gäggeler, Paul J. Karol, Hiromichi Nakahara, Emanuele Vardaci, and Erich Vogt. "Discovery of the Element with Atomic Number 112 (IUPAC Technical Report)." Pure and Applied Chemistry, volume 81, number 7, 2009, pp. 1331–1343. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-08-03-05

Barber, Robert C., Paul J. Karol, Hiromichi Nakahara, Emanuele Vardaci, and Erich W. Vogt. "Discovery of the Elements with Atomic Numbers Greater than or Equal to 113 (IUPAC Technical Report)." Pure and Applied Chemistry, volume 83, number 7, 2011, pp. 1485–1498. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-10-05-01

Corish, J., and G. M. Rosenblatt. "Name and Symbol of the Element with Atomic Number 110 (IUPAC Recommendations 2003)." Pure and Applied Chemistry, volume 75, number 10, 2003, pp. 1613–1615. doi:10.1351/pac200375101613

Cox, P. A. The Elements: Their Origin, Abundance and Distribution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Emsley, John. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Ghiorso, A., B. G. Harvey, G. R. Choppin, S. G. Thompson, and G. T. Seaborg. "New Element Mendelevium, Atomic Number 101." Physical Review, volume 98, number 5, 1955, pp. 1518–1519. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.98.1518

Ghiorso, A., J. M. Nitschke, J. R. Alonso, C. T. Alonso, M. Nurmia, G. T. Seaborg, E. K. Hulet, and R. W. Lougheed. "Element 106." Physical Review Letters, volume 33, number 25, 1974, pp. 1490–1493. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.33.1490

Ghiorso, A., M. Nurmia, J. Harris, K. Eskola, and P. Eskola. "Positive Identification of Two Alpha-Particle-Emitting Isotopes of Element 104." Physical Review Letters, volume 22, number 24, 1969, pp. 1317–1320. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.22.1317

Ghiorso, A., S. G. Thompson, G. H. Higgins, G. T. Seaborg, M. H. Studier, P. R. Fields, S. M. Fried, H. Diamond, J. F. Mech, G. L. Pyle, J. R. Huizenga, A. Hirsch, W. M. Manning, C. I. Browne, H. L. Smith, and R. W. Spence. "New Elements Einsteinium and Fermium, Atomic Numbers 99 and 100." Physical Review, volume 99, number 3, 1955, pp. 1048–1049. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.99.1048

Ghiorso, A., T. Sikkeland, J. R. Walton, and G. T. Seaborg. "Element No. 102." Physical Review Letters, volume 1, number 1, 1958, pp. 18–21. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.1.18

Ghiorso, Albert, Matti Nurmia, Kari Eskola, James Harris, and Pirkko Eskola. "New Element Hahnium, Atomic Number 105." Physical Review Letters, volume 24, number 26, 1970, pp. 1498–1503. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.24.1498

Ghiorso, Albert, Matti Nurmia, Kari Eskola, James Harris, and Pirkko Eskola. "New Element Hahnium, Atomic Number 105." Physical Review Letters, volume 24, number 26, 1970, pp. 1498–1503. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.24.1498

Ghiorso, Albert, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon E. Larsh, and Robert M. Latimer. "New Element, Lawrencium, Atomic Number 103." Physical Review Letters, volume 6, number 9, 1961, pp. 473–475. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.6.473

Hoffman, Darleane C., Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn T. Seaborg. The Transuranium People: The Inside Story. London, England: Imperial College Press, 2000.

Hofmann, S., V. Ninov, F. P. Heßberger, P. Armbruster, H. Folger, G. Münzenberg, H. J. Schött, A. G. Popeko, A. V. Yeremin, A. N. Andreyev, S. Saro, R. Janik, and M. Leino. "Production and Decay of 269110." Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei, volume 350, number 4, 1995, pp. 277–280. doi:10.1007/BF01291181

Hofmann, S., V. Ninov, F. P. Heßberger, P. Armbruster, H. Folger, G. Münzenberg, H. J. Schött, A. G. Popeko, A. V. Yeremin, A. N. Andreyev, S. Saro, R. Janik, and M. Leino. "The New Element 111." Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei, volume 350, number 4, 1995, pp. 281–282. doi:10.1007/BF01291182

Hofmann, S., V. Ninov, F. P. Heßberger, P. Armbruster, H. Folger, G. Münzenberg, H. J. Schött, A. G. Popeko, A. V. Yeremin, S. Saro, R. Janik, and M. Leino. "The New Element 112." Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei, volume 354, number 3, 1996, pp. 229–230. doi:10.1007/s002180050036

Ihde, Aaron J. The Development of Modern Chemistry. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1984.

Marshall, James L. Discovery of the Elements: A Search for the Fundamental Principles of the Universe, 2nd edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing, 2002.

Münzenberg, G., P. Armbruster, F. P. Heßberger, S. Hofmann, K. Poppensieker, W. Reisdorf, J. H. R. Schneider, W. F. W. Schneider, K.-H. Schmidt, C.-C. Sahm, and D. Vermeulen. "Observation of One Correlated α-Decay in the Reaction 58Fe on 209Bi → 267109." Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei, volume 309, number 1, 1982, pp. 89–90. doi:10.1007/BF01420157

Münzenberg, G., P. Armbruster, H. Folger, F. P. Heßberger, S. Hofmann, J. Keller, K. Poppensieker, W. Reisdorf, K.-H. Schmidt, H.-J. Schött, M. E. Leino, and R. Hingmann. "The Identification of Element 108." Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei, volume 317, number 2, 1984, pp. 235–236. doi:10.1007/BF01421260

Münzenberg, G., S. Hofmann, F. P. Heßberger, W. Reisdorf, K. H. Schmidt, J. H. R. Schneider, P. Armbruster, C. C. Sahm, and B. Thuma. "Identification of Element 107 by α Correlation Chains." Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei, volume 300, number 1, 1981, pp. 107–108. doi:10.1007/BF01412623

Nobel Foundation. Glenn T. Seaborg: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1951/seaborg-bio.html. Accessed on July 1, 2009.

Oganessian, Yu. Ts., F. Sh. Abdullin, P. D. Bailey, D. E. Benker, M. E. Bennett, S. N. Dmitriev, J. G. Ezold, J. H. Hamilton, R. A. Henderson, M. G. Itkis, Yu. V. Lobanov, A. N. Mezentsev, K. J. Moody, S. L. Nelson, A. N. Polyakov, C. E. Porter, A. V. Ramayya, F. D. Riley, J. B. Roberto, M. A. Ryabinin, K. P. Rykaczewski, R. N. Sagaidak, D. A. Shaughnessy, I. V. Shirokovsky, M. A. Stoyer, V. G. Subbotin, R. Sudowe, A. M. Sukhov, Yu. S. Tsyganov, V. K. Utyonkov, A. A. Voinov, G. K. Vostokin, and P. A. Wilk. "Synthesis of a New Element with Atomic Number Z=117." Physical Review Letters, volume 104, number 14, 2010, pp. 142502–1 to 142502–4. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.142502

Oganessian, Yu. Ts., F. Sh. Abdullin, S. N. Dmitriev, M. G. Itkis, Yu. V. Lobanov, A. N. Mezentsev, A. N. Polyakov, R. N. Sagaidak, I. V. Shirokovsky, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, Yu. S. Tsyganov, V. K. Utyonkov, A. A. Voinov, G. K. Vostokin, P. D. Bailey, D. E. Benker, J. G. Ezold, C. E. Porter, F. D. Riley, J. B. Roberto, K. P. Rykaczewski, M. E. Bennett, R. Sudowe, J. H. Hamilton, A.V. Ramayya, R. A. Henderson, K. J. Moody, S. L. Nelson, D. A. Shaughnessy, M. A. Stoyer, P. A. Wilk, and M. A. Ryabinin. "Synthesis of a New Element with Atomic Number Z=117." Physical Review Letters, volume 104, number 14, 2010, pp. 142502–1 to 142502–4. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.142502

Oganessian, Yu. Ts., V. K. Utyonkov, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, G. G. Gulbekian, S. L. Bogomolov, B. N. Gikal, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, O. V. Ivanov, G. V. Buklanov, K. Subotic, M. G. Itkis, K. J. Moody, J. F. Wild, N. J. Stoyer, M. A. Stoyer, and R. W. Lougheed. "Synthesis of Superheavy Nuclei in the 48Ca+244Pu Reaction: 288114." Physical Review C, volume 62, number 4, 2000, pp. 041604–1 to 041604–4. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.62.041604

Oganessian, Yu. Ts., V. K. Utyonkov, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, G. G. Gulbekian, S. L. Bogomolov, B. N. Gikal, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, O. V. Ivanov, G. V. Buklanov, K. Subotic, M. G. Itkis, K. J. Moody, J. F. Wild, N. J. Stoyer, M. A. Stoyer, R. W. Lougheed, C. A. Laue, Ye. A. Karelin, and A. N. Tatarinov. "Observation of the decay of 292116." Physical Review C, volume 63, number 1, 2001, pp. 011301–1 to 011301–2. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.63.011301

Oganessian, Yu. Ts., V. K. Utyonkov, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, R. N. Sagaidak, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, A. A. Voinov, G. G. Gulbekian, S. L. Bogomolov, B. N. Gikal, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, K. Subotic, V. I. Zagrebaev, G. K. Vostokin, M. G. Itkis, K. J. Moody, J. B. Patin, D. A. Shaughnessy, M. A. Stoyer, N. J. Stoyer, P. A. Wilk, J. M. Kenneally, J. H. Landrum, J. F. Wild, and R. W. Lougheed. "Synthesis of the Isotopes of Elements 118 and 116 in the 249Cf and 245Cm+48Ca Fusion Reactions." Physical Review C, volume 74, number 4, 2006, pp. 044602–1 to 044602–9. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.74.044602

Oganessian, Yu. Ts., V. K. Utyonkoy, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, G. G. Gulbekian, S. L. Bogomolov, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, A. A. Voinov, G. V. Buklanov, K. Subotic, V. I. Zagrebaev, M. G. Itkis, J. B. Patin, K. J. Moody, J. F. Wild, M. A. Stoyer, N. J. Stoyer, D. A. Shaughnessy, J. M. Kenneally, and R. W. Lougheed. "Experiments on the Synthesis of Element 115 in the Reaction 243Am(48Ca,xn)291-x115." Physical Review C, volume 69, number 2, 2004, pp. 021601–1 to 021601–5. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.69.021601

Seaborg, Glenn T., and Walter D. Loveland. The Elements Beyond Uranium. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1990.

Thompson, S. G., A. Ghiorso, and G. T. Seaborg. "The New Element Berkelium (Atomic Number 97)." Physical Review, volume 80, number 5, 1950, pp. 781–789. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.80.781

Thompson, S. G., K. Street, Jr., A. Ghiorso, and G. T. Seaborg. "The New Element Californium (Atomic Number 98)." Physical Review, volume 80, number 5, 1950, pp. 790–796. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.80.790

Weeks, Mary Elvira, and Henry M. Leicester. Discovery of the Elements, 7th edition. Easton, PA: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968.