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Element

Discovery

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Hafnium

date of discovery

1923

discoverer

Dirk Coster

birth

1889

death

1950

discoverer

George Charles de Hevesy

birth

August 1, 1885

death

July 5, 1966

location of discovery

Copenhagen, Denmark

Hassium

date of discovery

1984

discoverer

G. Münzenberg

discoverer

P. Armbruster

discoverer

H. Folger

discoverer

F. P. Heßberger

discoverer

S. Hofmann

discoverer

J. Keller

discoverer

K. Poppensieker

discoverer

W. Reisdorf

discoverer

K.-H. Schmidt

discoverer

H.-J. Schött

discoverer

M. E. Leino

discoverer

R. Hingmann

location of discovery

Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI), Darmstadt, Germany

Helium

date of discovery

1895

discoverer

William Ramsay

birth

October 2, 1852

death

July 23, 1916

location of discovery

London, England

Holmium

date of discovery

1879

discoverer

Per Teodor Cleve

birth

February 10, 1840

death

June 18, 1905

location of discovery

Uppsala, Sweden

Hydrogen

date of discovery

1766

discoverer

Henry Cavendish

birth

October 10, 1731

death

February 24, 1810

location of discovery

London, England

Indium

date of discovery

1863

discoverer

Ferdinand Reich

birth

February 19, 1799

death

April 27, 1882

discoverer

Hieronymus Theodor Richter

birth

November 21, 1824

death

September 25, 1898

location of discovery

Freiberg, Germany

Iodine

date of discovery

1811

discoverer

Bernard Courtois

birth

February 8, 1777

death

September 27, 1838

location of discovery

Paris, France

Iridium

date of discovery

1804

discoverer

Smithson Tennant

birth

November 30, 1761

death

February 22, 1815

location of discovery

London, England

Iron

date of discovery

circa 2500 BC

discoverer

unknown

location of discovery

unknown

Krypton

date of discovery

1898

discoverer

William Ramsay

birth

October 2, 1852

death

July 23, 1916

discoverer

Morris William Travers

birth

January 24, 1872

death

1961

location of discovery

London, England

Lanthanum

date of discovery

1839

discoverer

Carl Gustav Mosander

birth

September 10, 1797

death

October 15, 1858

location of discovery

Stockholm, Sweden

Lawrencium

date of discovery

1961

discoverer

Albert Ghiorso

birth

July 15, 1915

discoverer

Torbjørn Sikkeland

discoverer

Almon E. Larsh

discoverer

Robert M. Latimer

location of discovery

Berkeley, California

Lead

date of discovery

circa 1000 BC

discoverer

unknown

location of discovery

unknown

Lithium

date of discovery

1817

discoverer

Johan August Arfwedson

birth

January 4 (or 12), 1792

death

October 28, 1841

location of discovery

Stockholm, Sweden

Livermorium

date of discovery

2000

discoverer

Yu. Ts. Oganessian

discoverer

V. K. Utyonkov

discoverer

Yu. V. Lobanov

discoverer

F. Sh. Abdullin

discoverer

A. N. Polyakov

discoverer

I. V. Shirokovsky

discoverer

Yu. S. Tsyganov

discoverer

G. G. Gulbekian

discoverer

S. L. Bogomolov

discoverer

B. N. Gikal

discoverer

A. N. Mezentsev

discoverer

S. Iliev

discoverer

V. G. Subbotin

discoverer

A. M. Sukhov

discoverer

O. V. Ivanov

discoverer

G. V. Buklanov

discoverer

K. Subotic

discoverer

M. G. Itkis

discoverer

K. J. Moody

discoverer

J. F. Wild

discoverer

N. J. Stoyer

discoverer

M. A. Stoyer

discoverer

R. W. Lougheed

discoverer

C. A. Laue

discoverer

Ye. A. Karelin

discoverer

A. N. Tatarinov

location of discovery

Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia (Dubna-Livermore collaboration)

Lutetium

shared discovery

date of discovery

1907

discoverer

Georges Urbain

birth

April 12, 1872

death

November 5, 1938

location of discovery

Paris, France

shared discovery

date of discovery

1907

discoverer

Charles James

birth

April 27, 1880

death

December 10, 1928

location of discovery

New Hampshire, USA

shared discovery

date of discovery

1907

discoverer

Baron Auer von Welsbach

birth

September 1, 1858

death

August 4, 1929

location of discovery

Vienna, Austria

Magnesium

date of discovery

1755

discoverer

Joseph Black

birth

1728

death

1799

location of discovery

Edinburgh, Scotland

Manganese

date of discovery

1774

discoverer

Johan Gottlieb Gahn

birth

August 19, 1745

death

December 8, 1818

location of discovery

Stockholm, Sweden

Meitnerium

date of discovery

1982

discoverer

G. Münzenberg

discoverer

P. Armbruster

discoverer

F. P. Heßberger

discoverer

S. Hofmann

discoverer

K. Poppensieker

discoverer

W. Reisdorf

discoverer

J. H. R. Schneider

discoverer

W. F. W. Schneider

discoverer

K.-H. Schmidt

discoverer

C.-C. Sahm

discoverer

D. Vermeulen

location of discovery

Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI), Darmstadt, Germany

Mendelevium

date of discovery

1955

discoverer

Albert Ghiorso

birth

July 15, 1915

discoverer

Bernard G. Harvey

discoverer

Gregory R. Choppin

discoverer

Stanley G. Thompson

death

July 16, 1976

discoverer

Glenn Theodore Seaborg

birth

April 19, 1912

death

February 25, 1999

location of discovery

Berkeley, California

References    (Click the button next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry)

Barber, Robert C., Paul J. Karol, Hiromichi Nakahara, Emanuele Vardaci, and Erich W. Vogt. "Discovery of the Elements with Atomic Numbers Greater than or Equal to 113 (IUPAC Technical Report)." Pure and Applied Chemistry, volume 83, number 7, 2011, pp. 1485–1498. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-10-05-01

Cox, P. A. The Elements: Their Origin, Abundance and Distribution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Emsley, John. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Ghiorso, A., B. G. Harvey, G. R. Choppin, S. G. Thompson, and G. T. Seaborg. "New Element Mendelevium, Atomic Number 101." Physical Review, volume 98, number 5, 1955, pp. 1518–1519. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.98.1518

Ghiorso, A., J. M. Nitschke, J. R. Alonso, C. T. Alonso, M. Nurmia, G. T. Seaborg, E. K. Hulet, and R. W. Lougheed. "Element 106." Physical Review Letters, volume 33, number 25, 1974, pp. 1490–1493. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.33.1490

Ghiorso, A., M. Nurmia, J. Harris, K. Eskola, and P. Eskola. "Positive Identification of Two Alpha-Particle-Emitting Isotopes of Element 104." Physical Review Letters, volume 22, number 24, 1969, pp. 1317–1320. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.22.1317

Ghiorso, A., S. G. Thompson, G. H. Higgins, G. T. Seaborg, M. H. Studier, P. R. Fields, S. M. Fried, H. Diamond, J. F. Mech, G. L. Pyle, J. R. Huizenga, A. Hirsch, W. M. Manning, C. I. Browne, H. L. Smith, and R. W. Spence. "New Elements Einsteinium and Fermium, Atomic Numbers 99 and 100." Physical Review, volume 99, number 3, 1955, pp. 1048–1049. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.99.1048

Ghiorso, A., T. Sikkeland, J. R. Walton, and G. T. Seaborg. "Element No. 102." Physical Review Letters, volume 1, number 1, 1958, pp. 18–21. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.1.18

Ghiorso, Albert, Matti Nurmia, Kari Eskola, James Harris, and Pirkko Eskola. "New Element Hahnium, Atomic Number 105." Physical Review Letters, volume 24, number 26, 1970, pp. 1498–1503. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.24.1498

Ghiorso, Albert, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon E. Larsh, and Robert M. Latimer. "New Element, Lawrencium, Atomic Number 103." Physical Review Letters, volume 6, number 9, 1961, pp. 473–475. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.6.473

Griffith, W. P. "Bicentenary of Four Platinum Group Metals: Part II: Osmium and Iridium—Events Surrounding Their Discoveries." Platinum Metals Review, volume 48, number 4, 2004, pp. 182–189. doi:10.1595/147106704X4844

Hoffman, Darleane C., Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn T. Seaborg. The Transuranium People: The Inside Story. London, England: Imperial College Press, 2000.

Hofmann, S., V. Ninov, F. P. Heßberger, P. Armbruster, H. Folger, G. Münzenberg, H. J. Schött, A. G. Popeko, A. V. Yeremin, A. N. Andreyev, S. Saro, R. Janik, and M. Leino. "Production and Decay of 269110." Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei, volume 350, number 4, 1995, pp. 277–280. doi:10.1007/BF01291181

Hofmann, S., V. Ninov, F. P. Heßberger, P. Armbruster, H. Folger, G. Münzenberg, H. J. Schött, A. G. Popeko, A. V. Yeremin, A. N. Andreyev, S. Saro, R. Janik, and M. Leino. "The New Element 111." Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei, volume 350, number 4, 1995, pp. 281–282. doi:10.1007/BF01291182

Hofmann, S., V. Ninov, F. P. Heßberger, P. Armbruster, H. Folger, G. Münzenberg, H. J. Schött, A. G. Popeko, A. V. Yeremin, S. Saro, R. Janik, and M. Leino. "The New Element 112." Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei, volume 354, number 3, 1996, pp. 229–230. doi:10.1007/s002180050036

Ihde, Aaron J. The Development of Modern Chemistry. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1984.

Jensen, William B. "Why Helium Ends in “-ium”." Journal of Chemical Education, volume 81, number 7, 2004, p. 944. doi:10.1021/ed081p944

Lewis, David G. "The Early Life of Smithson Tennant FRS (1761–1815)." Platinum Metals Review, volume 55, number 3, 2011, pp. 196–200. doi:10.1595/147106711X581710

Marshall, James L. Discovery of the Elements: A Search for the Fundamental Principles of the Universe, 2nd edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing, 2002.

Münzenberg, G., P. Armbruster, F. P. Heßberger, S. Hofmann, K. Poppensieker, W. Reisdorf, J. H. R. Schneider, W. F. W. Schneider, K.-H. Schmidt, C.-C. Sahm, and D. Vermeulen. "Observation of One Correlated α-Decay in the Reaction 58Fe on 209Bi → 267109." Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei, volume 309, number 1, 1982, pp. 89–90. doi:10.1007/BF01420157

Münzenberg, G., P. Armbruster, H. Folger, F. P. Heßberger, S. Hofmann, J. Keller, K. Poppensieker, W. Reisdorf, K.-H. Schmidt, H.-J. Schött, M. E. Leino, and R. Hingmann. "The Identification of Element 108." Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei, volume 317, number 2, 1984, pp. 235–236. doi:10.1007/BF01421260

Münzenberg, G., S. Hofmann, F. P. Heßberger, W. Reisdorf, K. H. Schmidt, J. H. R. Schneider, P. Armbruster, C. C. Sahm, and B. Thuma. "Identification of Element 107 by α Correlation Chains." Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei, volume 300, number 1, 1981, pp. 107–108. doi:10.1007/BF01412623

Nobel Foundation. George de Hevesy: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1943/hevesy-bio.html. Accessed on July 14, 2009.

Nobel Foundation. Glenn T. Seaborg: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1951/seaborg-bio.html. Accessed on July 1, 2009.

Nobel Foundation. Sir William Ramsay: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1904/ramsay-bio.html. Accessed on July 16, 2009.

Oganessian, Yu. Ts., F. Sh. Abdullin, P. D. Bailey, D. E. Benker, M. E. Bennett, S. N. Dmitriev, J. G. Ezold, J. H. Hamilton, R. A. Henderson, M. G. Itkis, Yu. V. Lobanov, A. N. Mezentsev, K. J. Moody, S. L. Nelson, A. N. Polyakov, C. E. Porter, A. V. Ramayya, F. D. Riley, J. B. Roberto, M. A. Ryabinin, K. P. Rykaczewski, R. N. Sagaidak, D. A. Shaughnessy, I. V. Shirokovsky, M. A. Stoyer, V. G. Subbotin, R. Sudowe, A. M. Sukhov, Yu. S. Tsyganov, V. K. Utyonkov, A. A. Voinov, G. K. Vostokin, and P. A. Wilk. "Synthesis of a New Element with Atomic Number Z=117." Physical Review Letters, volume 104, number 14, 2010, pp. 142502–1 to 142502–4. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.142502

Oganessian, Yu. Ts., F. Sh. Abdullin, S. N. Dmitriev, M. G. Itkis, Yu. V. Lobanov, A. N. Mezentsev, A. N. Polyakov, R. N. Sagaidak, I. V. Shirokovsky, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, Yu. S. Tsyganov, V. K. Utyonkov, A. A. Voinov, G. K. Vostokin, P. D. Bailey, D. E. Benker, J. G. Ezold, C. E. Porter, F. D. Riley, J. B. Roberto, K. P. Rykaczewski, M. E. Bennett, R. Sudowe, J. H. Hamilton, A.V. Ramayya, R. A. Henderson, K. J. Moody, S. L. Nelson, D. A. Shaughnessy, M. A. Stoyer, P. A. Wilk, and M. A. Ryabinin. "Synthesis of a New Element with Atomic Number Z=117." Physical Review Letters, volume 104, number 14, 2010, pp. 142502–1 to 142502–4. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.142502

Oganessian, Yu. Ts., V. K. Utyonkov, and K. J. Moody. "Synthesis of 292116 in the 248Cm+48Ca Reaction." Physics of Atomic Nuclei, volume 64, number 8, 2001, pp. 1349–1355. doi:10.1134/1.1398925

Oganessian, Yu. Ts., V. K. Utyonkov, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, G. G. Gulbekian, S. L. Bogomolov, B. N. Gikal, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, O. V. Ivanov, G. V. Buklanov, K. Subotic, M. G. Itkis, K. J. Moody, J. F. Wild, N. J. Stoyer, M. A. Stoyer, and R. W. Lougheed. "Synthesis of Superheavy Nuclei in the 48Ca+244Pu Reaction: 288114." Physical Review C, volume 62, number 4, 2000, pp. 041604–1 to 041604–4. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.62.041604

Oganessian, Yu. Ts., V. K. Utyonkov, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, G. G. Gulbekian, S. L. Bogomolov, B. N. Gikal, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, O. V. Ivanov, G. V. Buklanov, K. Subotic, M. G. Itkis, K. J. Moody, J. F. Wild, N. J. Stoyer, M. A. Stoyer, R. W. Lougheed, C. A. Laue, Ye. A. Karelin, and A. N. Tatarinov. "Observation of the decay of 292116." Physical Review C, volume 63, number 1, 2001, pp. 011301–1 to 011301–2. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.63.011301

Oganessian, Yu. Ts., V. K. Utyonkov, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, R. N. Sagaidak, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, A. A. Voinov, G. G. Gulbekian, S. L. Bogomolov, B. N. Gikal, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, K. Subotic, V. I. Zagrebaev, G. K. Vostokin, M. G. Itkis, K. J. Moody, J. B. Patin, D. A. Shaughnessy, M. A. Stoyer, N. J. Stoyer, P. A. Wilk, J. M. Kenneally, J. H. Landrum, J. F. Wild, and R. W. Lougheed. "Synthesis of the Isotopes of Elements 118 and 116 in the 249Cf and 245Cm+48Ca Fusion Reactions." Physical Review C, volume 74, number 4, 2006, pp. 044602–1 to 044602–9. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.74.044602

Oganessian, Yu. Ts., V. K. Utyonkoy, Yu. V. Lobanov, F. Sh. Abdullin, A. N. Polyakov, I. V. Shirokovsky, Yu. S. Tsyganov, G. G. Gulbekian, S. L. Bogomolov, A. N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V. G. Subbotin, A. M. Sukhov, A. A. Voinov, G. V. Buklanov, K. Subotic, V. I. Zagrebaev, M. G. Itkis, J. B. Patin, K. J. Moody, J. F. Wild, M. A. Stoyer, N. J. Stoyer, D. A. Shaughnessy, J. M. Kenneally, and R. W. Lougheed. "Experiments on the Synthesis of Element 115 in the Reaction 243Am(48Ca,xn)291-x115." Physical Review C, volume 69, number 2, 2004, pp. 021601–1 to 021601–5. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.69.021601

Seaborg, Glenn T., and Walter D. Loveland. The Elements Beyond Uranium. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1990.

Thompson, S. G., A. Ghiorso, and G. T. Seaborg. "The New Element Berkelium (Atomic Number 97)." Physical Review, volume 80, number 5, 1950, pp. 781–789. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.80.781

Thompson, S. G., K. Street, Jr., A. Ghiorso, and G. T. Seaborg. "The New Element Californium (Atomic Number 98)." Physical Review, volume 80, number 5, 1950, pp. 790–796. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.80.790

Weeks, Mary Elvira, and Henry M. Leicester. Discovery of the Elements, 7th edition. Easton, PA: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968.